Turkish voters are set to determine whether or not to grant President Recep Tayyip Erdogan a second five-year time period in essentially the most fiercely-fought elections the nation has seen in years.
Polls open at 08:00 (05:00 GMT) in presidential and parliamentary votes.
If Mr Erdogan wins, he’ll undertake main new powers that critics say will weaken democratic rule.
However he faces a significant problem from centre-left candidate Muharrem Ince of the Republican Individuals’s Occasion (CHP).
Turkey stays underneath a state of emergency imposed within the aftermath of a failed coup in July 2016.
These elections have been initially scheduled for November 2019 however have been introduced ahead by Mr Erdogan.
What do the candidates say about one another?
Mr Erdogan and his primary rival Muharrem Ince each held large rallies on Saturday, their closing day of campaigning – and every branded the opposite unfit to run Turkey.
Mr Ince, whose fiery campaigning has revitalised Turkey’s demoralised opposition, promised to push again what he characterised as a slide into authoritarian rule underneath Mr Erdogan.
“If Erdogan wins, your telephones will proceed to be listened to… Worry will proceed to reign,” he instructed no less than 1,000,000 individuals gathered in Istanbul. “If Ince wins, the courts can be impartial.”
Mr Ince additionally stated that if elected, he would elevate Turkey’s state of emergency inside 48 hours. Emergency rule permits the federal government to bypass parliament.
At his personal rally, President Erdogan – who was prime minister for 11 years earlier than turning into president in 2014 – used a violent metaphor to summarise his hoped-for end result, asking supporters, “Are we going to offer them an Ottoman slap [a technique for knocking someone out] tomorrow?”
He accused Mr Ince – a former trainer and MP of 16 years – of missing the abilities to guide.
“It is one factor to be a physics trainer, it is one other factor to run a rustic,” Mr Erdogan stated. “Being president wants expertise.”
He instructed supporters he deliberate to push by means of extra main infrastructure tasks to spice up the economic system.
Evaluation: Judgement day for Turkey’s highly effective president
By Mark Lowen, BBC Turkey Correspondent
By no means in its fashionable historical past has this significant nation felt so divided. And by no means has Recep Tayyip Erdogan confronted such a tricky election struggle.
Turkey’s strongest chief since its founding father Ataturk would develop into extra highly effective nonetheless if he wins, scrapping the put up of prime minister and weakening parliament. But when he fails to achieve 50% within the presidential vote, he’ll face a run-off, most likely with Muharrem Ince, a fiery centre-left candidate who has electrified the marketing campaign.
Within the parliamentary ballot, a united opposition is hoping to deprive Mr Erdogan of his majority. Worshipped by his supporters, abhorred by his critics, that is President Erdogan’s judgement day. No person can inform which method it can go.
How will the voting work?
Two votes are being held on Sunday – one to decide on Turkey’s subsequent president, and one other to choose members of parliament.
Round 60 million Turks are eligible to participate.
Six candidates are vying for the presidency, and if one in every of them wins greater than 50% of the vote they are going to be elected outright.
If no one hits that threshold, the highest two will face off in a second-round vote on eight July.
Mr Erdogan can be hoping to win decisively, as a run-off vote may finish in defeat or slim his margin of victory.
Within the parliamentary election, the president’s AK Occasion (AKP) will face a tricky battle to maintain its majority within the 600-seat meeting.
The competition pits a government-led coalition in opposition to an alliance of opposition events.
- What’s Turkey like?
- The complete story: Life underneath President Erdogan
The efficiency of the pro-Kurdish Peoples Democratic Occasion (HDP) may show decisive. If it hits the 10% vote-share wanted to enter parliament, it is going to be tougher for the AKP to retain its dominance.
The HDP’s presidential candidate Selahattin Demirtas is presently detained in a high-security jail on terror costs, which he firmly denies.
What are the primary election points?
The largest is the economic system. The Turkish lira has tanked and inflation stands at round 11% – so peculiar individuals are feeling the squeeze.
Terrorism is one other vexed concern, as Turkey faces assaults from Kurdish militants and the jihadists of the Islamic State group.
Nonetheless, our correspondent says the nation tends to vote alongside its huge divides: One between Kurds and nationalists, and one other between non secular and secular individuals.
Will the vote be free and truthful?
Polls will open amid excessive safety. In Istanbul alone, greater than 38,000 law enforcement officials are anticipated to be on responsibility.
Fears have been raised about potential voter intimidation, particularly in south-eastern areas the place Kurdish votes are key to the end result.
Electoral fraud is one other potential danger, particularly as a brand new legislation permits poll papers to be counted even when they don’t have the election board’s stamp to mark them as real.
Alcohol gross sales can be banned on Sunday – which is regular for Turkey on polling days.
What occurs if Mr Erdogan wins?
He would begin his second time period in a turbo-charged model of the job.
The presidency was as soon as a largely ceremonial position, however in April 2017, 51% of Turkish voters endorsed a brand new structure that grants the president new powers.
- Instantly appointing prime public officers, together with ministers and vice-presidents
- The ability to intervene within the nation’s authorized system
- The ability to impose a state of emergency
The job of prime minister may also be scrapped.
Critics have accused Mr Erdogan of attempting to usher in one-man rule, and his rival candidates have stated they might not deliver within the adjustments.
If each elections go in opposition to the present president, Turkey’s political panorama will change considerably.
But when the presidency goes a technique and parliament one other, it may set off a interval of political instability within the years to come back.
The nation has gone by means of a tumultuous interval because the 2016 coup try. Greater than 160,000 individuals have been detained, in accordance with the UN, as a part of a crackdown on perceived followers of US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen, whom the federal government accuses of being behind the plot. He denies any involvement.